The other deduction (apart from an agreed-upon amount for room and board) your employer can make from your pay is a deduction for income tax. Every year, your employer must send a record of your wages and deductions to Revenue Canada Taxation. Your employer must provide a copy of this record to you in the form of the T4 form. You should have it latest by February 28 of the following year.
This form will allow you to file your income tax report by April 30 of each year. Depending on how much you earned in the taxation year (January to December), you may receive back all or part of what you paid for that year in income tax deductions. You can get the income tax form and a book to help you fill it in at any post office.
Most common questions about taxes and answers from the Canada Customs and Revenue Agency: http://www.ccra-adrc.gc.ca/
Each province has different provincial taxes that are payable as a percentage of the federal income taxes. You will find more information about provincial income taxes under the links on the left.
Every resident, whether permanent or temporary, must pay GST (Goods and Service Tax) and PST (Provincial Sales Tax) on goods and services purchased in stores or from individuals who have registered for a GST number. GST is a flat percentage of the value of goods or services purchased in whole Canada - 5 %. PST will depend on the province where you live.
If you get an invoice for merchandise purchased or services rendered and you are charged the GST, make sure that the invoice includes the GST number of the company or person that gave you the invoice. You do not have to pay the GST if the person does not provide you with the GST number.